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Showing posts with label citizenship. Show all posts
Showing posts with label citizenship. Show all posts

Wednesday, May 10, 2023

The Rohingya Crisis In Myanmar: Analysing The Use Of Citizenship Status As Lawfare

Abstract: Since the 1982 Citizenship Law, the lives of Myanmar's Rohingya minority have been subjected to both symbolic, material, and physical violence. This paper seeks to analyze how the Citizenship Law can be considered an act of lawfare, that is, using the law as a weapon. Lack of citizenship can give rise to insecurity, excluding people from a community in which civil and political rights are assured and security is guaranteed. In this way, it can also legitimize violence against the minority. Thus, the Citizenship Law — and the consequent exclusion of the Rohingyas from citizenship — has been an enabler of violence. First, in the form of symbolic and material violence through the denial of civil, political, social, and economic rights; then, physical violence through ethnic cleansing attempts enacted by the Tatmadaw, which sought to transform legislative nonexistence into literal nonexistence.

Problem statement: How did the Tatmadaw government use the 1982 Citizenship Law to create insecurity and legitimize violence against the Rohingya minority in Myanmar?

Bottom-line-up-front: The 1982 Citizenship Law in Myanmar, which excluded the Rohingya minority from the ‘national races’ entitled to citizenship, was not only a cause of insecurity and vulnerability among those targeted but also a genuine act of lawfare carried out by the Tatmadaw to legitimize symbolic, material, and physical violence by marginalising and alienating the Rohingya minority through legal non-recognition.

Monday, May 8, 2023

Rohingya stand firm on citizenship after day-trip to Rakhine state

RFA
By Abdur Rahman for BenarNews and RFA Burmese
2023.05.08
Cox's Bazar, Bangladesh

The Burmese junta invited refugees to see housing constructed for their return.
 

Rohingya and Bangladesh officials observe temporary housing constructed in Rakhine state’s Maungdaw township constructed by the Myanmar government to repatriate the refugees, May 5, 2023.
Courtesy: members of the Rohingya delegation

Bangladesh-based Rohingya who were taken to Myanmar’s Rakhine state Friday to see preparations for refugee repatriation said they wouldn’t return without citizenship rights, recognition of their Rohingya identity, and a guarantee that they could resettle in their home villages.

Twenty Rohingya and seven Bangladeshi government officials traveled to Maungdaw township in northern Rakhine, where the Burmese junta had invited them to inspect preparations as part of a China-backed effort to repatriate a small portion of the 1 million Rohingya refugees sheltering in southeastern Bangladesh.

Rohingya refugees demand citizenship and security on first return to Myanma

CNN
Story by Reuters
Published  Sun May 7, 2023 

Rohingya refugees and Bangladeshi officials return after visiting Myanmar's Rakhine state as part of an effort to encourage their voluntary repatriation, in Cox's Bazar, Bangladesh, on May 5.Stringer/Reuter
 

Rohingya refugees in Bangladesh said on Saturday they would not return to Myanmar to “be confined in camps” after making their first return visit as part of efforts to encourage their voluntary repatriation.

Nearly a million Rohingya Muslims live in squalid camps in the Bangladeshi border district of Cox’s Bazar.

Most have been there since fleeing a military-led crackdown in Buddhist-majority Myanmar in 2017 and had not returned until now, although Bangladeshi officials have made several trips to Myanmar as they seek to repatriate the refugees.

Tuesday, November 29, 2022

'They tried to erase us': Rohingya IDs deny citizenship

Eco-Business
Thomson Reuters Foundation
Nov. 29, 2022
 Zaw Win’s grandparents had the same identify card as everyone else in Myanmar, but a generation later his parents were given a separate ID for minority Rohingyas. Today, Zaw Win is classed as an illegal immigrant in the land of his birth.

For more than three decades, Myanmar’s ruling powers have weaponised the country’s identity card system in a wider campaign of persecution, exclusion and surveillance targeting the Muslim ethnic community, human rights groups say.

Wednesday, August 25, 2021

Citizenship of the Rohingya in Myanmar: A historical account

The Daily Star
Md Khalid Rahman
Tue Aug 24, 2021

While the international stakeholders and the Government of Bangladesh have tried for their safe and dignified voluntary return of the Rohingya refugees as per the agreement between Bangladesh and Myanmar, the citizenship issue became one of the crucial contesting conditions. Unfortunately, no government of Myanmar, after the mischievous power-grabbing of the then Burma by the military government led by General Ne Win has responded positively to the citizenship issue of the Rohingya. The present article argues that the citizenship crisis is rooted in the British colonial era that consequently gained momentum through the political demarcation and marginalisation of different ethnicity including Rohingya.

Friday, June 18, 2021

Rohingyas Getting Citizenship: ACC sues ex-CCC councillor, 5 others

The Daily Star
June 15, 2021



The Anti-Corruption Commission yesterday filed a case against six people, including a former ward councillor of Chattogram City Corporation and three Rohingyas, for issuing citizenship and birth certificates to Rohingyas.

Deputy Assistant Director Sharif Uddin of ACC Integrated Office Chattogram lodged the case with ACC Integrated Office Chattogram-1, said the ACC sources.

The accused are: Ismail Bali, 49, former councillor of Patharghata ward of CCC, Subarna Dutta, assistant of birth certificate issue section of the ward office, Rohingya broker Sirajul Islam, and three Rohingyas -- Mohammed Ismail, 56, his wife Meher Jan, 42, and Wahida, 26.

Sunday, June 6, 2021

Myanmar Shadow Government Pledges Citizenship for Rohingya

THE I DIPLOMAT
Sebastian Strangio
June 04, 2021 


The National Unity Government has called for the besieged community to join in the “Spring Revolution” against the military junta


In a move designed to burnish its claims to international support and recognition, Myanmar’s opposition National Unity Government (NUG) has promised to grant the country’s beleaguered Rohingya minority population citizenship.

In a policy statement released yesterday, the NUG, which was formed to oppose the military junta that seized power in February, said that the Rohingya are “entitled to citizenship by laws that will accord with fundamental human rights and democratic federal principles.”

It added, “We invite the Rohingyas to join hands with us and with others to participate in this Spring Revolution against the military dictatorship in all possible ways.”

The NUG statement promised to repeal Myanmar’s problematic 1982 Citizenship Law, which is underpinned by a complex taxonomy of 135 “national races,” from which the Rohingya are excluded, complicating their ability to gain citizenship. It said that whatever law replaces it “must base citizenship on birth in Myanmar or birth anywhere as a child of Myanmar citizens.”

Saturday, May 29, 2021

Bangladesh Trashes Report Alleging Rohingya Were Promised Citizenship to Move to Island

Benar News
Kamran Reza Chowdhury
Dhaka
2021-05-27
A Rohingya refugee draws water from a pump on Bhashan Char Island in Bangladesh, Dec. 30, 2020.
[Special to BenarNews]

A new report by an international NGO alleges that Dhaka has falsely promised Bangladeshi citizenship to Rohingya refugees who move to Bhashan Char, a remote and flood-prone island in the Bay of Bengal, a claim that the government on Thursday rejected as untrue.

Bangladesh is focused on repatriating Rohingya to neighboring Myanmar, said Delwar Hossain, director general of the Myanmar wing at the foreign ministry, while he dismissed the report by Refugees International as containing false allegations.

Thursday, May 27, 2021

UNGA President: Rohingyas' rights to return, citizenship must be respected

Dhaka Tribune
UNB
May 26th, 2021
A year ago the International Court of Justice ordered Myanmar to do everything possible to prevent a genocide against the Rohingya, he said

President of the 75th session of the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) Volkan Bozkir has said the basic rights, including to citizenship, and the creation of conditions conducive to the voluntary, safe, dignified and sustainable return of all Rohingyas must be respected.

"The safety and security of the Rohingya and other minorities must be secured," he said while delivering his keynote speech at the Sixth Lecture of the Bangabandhu Lecture Series at the Foreign Service Academy on Tuesday.

Thursday, October 10, 2019

Gandhi would be fasting against India’s discriminatory new citizenship law

The Washington Post  
October 8 
Prime Minister Narendra Modi paid tribute to Mahatma Gandhi during a ceremony in Parliament in New Delhi on Oct. 2. (Money Sharma/AFP via Getty Images)
 
India is celebrating the 150th birthday of Mahatma Gandhi with widespread tributes. Such was the moral force of the father of the nation’s nonviolence agitation for independence against the British, that he remains the one historical figure about whom little political disagreement is permissible.

Writing in the New York Times recently, Prime Minister Narendra Modi said Gandhi “envisioned Indian nationalism as one that was never narrow or exclusive but one that worked for the service of humanity."

Saturday, August 3, 2019

Integration should not be a one-way street

Frontier
MYANMAR
Opinion
Saturday, August 03, 2019
By THAN TOE AUNG | FRONTIER

Advocates of interfaith harmony gather at central Yangon's Mahabandoola Park in May 2016. (Steve Tickner | Frontier)  

It’s time for us to embrace the idea that you can wear a beard, kurta or hijab, and have a Muslim name, and still be fully Burmese.

ONE OF Burma’s most prominent monks, Sitagu Sayadaw, once observed that Muslims are “guests” and Buddhists are “hosts”, and that “the guests must obey the hosts”. Similarly, I have heard Buddhists say that Muslims in Burma (a name I use in preference to Myanmar) need to respect Buddhist culture and “assimilate” into it.

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Rohingya reject Myanmar's 'foreign citizen' offer

By SM Najmus Sakib 
29.07.2019 
DHAKA, Bangladesh


With Myanmar officials considering calling Rohingya “foreign citizen,” the persecuted people are demanding full citizenship, ethnic rights, and international protection before repatriation.

Myint Thu, Myanmar’s foreign affairs permanent secretary, said at a meeting with Rohingya refugees in Cox’s Bazar, Bangladesh that Myanmar’s government will consider the Rohingya “foreign nationals,” local daily The Daily Star reported on Monday.

Thursday, June 27, 2019

Myanmar must give Rohingya 'pathway to citizenship' - U.N. investigator

Monday, June 24, 2019

Malaysia calls for ‘justice’ and citizenship for Rohingya Muslims

COCONUTS YANGON 
By AFP Jun 23, 2019

Monday, May 6, 2019

The new Muslim citizens of Ramree Island

Frontier
MYANMAR
By MRATT KYAW THU | FRONTIER
 Pink-coloured Citizenship Scrutiny Cards (pictured) grant the bearer the rights of full Myanmar citizenship. (Nyein Su Wai Kyaw Soe | Frontier)
A village on Rakhine State’s Ramree Island is at the centre of a controversy around the granting of citizenship to thousands of Muslims, with some alleging corruption. 

MORE THAN 3,000 Muslims were issued citizenship cards last year in Rakhine State’s Ramree Township. In an unprecedented move, five immigration officers spent eight months in an isolated village to complete the process.

Wednesday, March 13, 2019

Media partisanship and irrational citizenship

The Manila Times
By ANTONIO CONTRERAS
Opinion/ Op-Ed Columns
March 14, 2019,
 
THE news about the political turmoil in Venezuela, where hospitals are now turning away even emergency patients because they do not have medicine to treat them, and massive power outages have paralyzed the country, has distressed me.

But what distressed me even more was the reaction from one of my online followers to my lament of how Nicolas Maduro, the beleaguered Venezuelan president, could allow his people to suffer just to keep himself in power. He wrote: “Wala tayo sa Venezuela (We are not in Venezuela), we don’t know what’s really going on there. Can we trust the mainstream media? Have we forgotten what they did to Marcos, Ghadafi, what they’re doing to Duterte right now?
 

Saturday, March 9, 2019

China denies offering cash to lure Rohingya to Myanmar.

The Peninsula Qatar
08 Mar 2019


Rohingya refugee children play football at the Balukhali refugee camp in Cox's Bazar, Bangladesh, March 5, 2019. REUTERS/Mohammad Ponir Hossain

By SM Najmus Sakib I Anadolu


DHAKA: A Chinese official has denied reports that his country’s government delegation had promised each family of Rohingya refugees $6,000 if they returned to restive Rakhine State in Myanmar, a media report said.

According to BenarNews, an online news service, Chinese Embassy Attaché in Dhaka Vera Hu said: "China never offers money to Rohingya people for them to go back.”

Friday, March 8, 2019

Rohingya Trading Identity for Partial Citizenship, More Rights in Rakhine State

The Irrawaddy
By Moe Myint 7 March 2019

Lawmakers take a rare stand for persecuted Muslims in western Burma after learning that the movement of about 500 people recently awarded citizenship remains restricted.

YANGON — More than half of the 7,000-plus Muslim Rohingya who have applied for citizenship in Rakhine State over the past three years have now been accepted following a wave of approvals in just the last few months, according to the Ministry of Labor, Population and Immigration.

Monday, February 25, 2019

Rohingyas are violent as they are stateless: Foreign minister.

The Daily Star

February 24, 2019
Our Correspondent, Sylhet


Foreign Minister Dr AK Abdul Momen yesterday said Rohingyas are violent as they do not have citizenship anywhere.

Attacking German journalists at Ukhia Rohingya Camp in Cox's Bazaar was an unfortunate act by the Rohingyas, he said.

Sunday, February 10, 2019

People Flee Escalating Violence in Myanmar's Rakhine, Southern Chin States.

VOA NEWS
February 10, 2019,
By: Lisa Schlein
A Mro ethnic women with child displaced from the surge of fighting between ethnic armed rebel group of the Arakan Army and government troops take refuge at a compound of a Buddhist pagoda in Buthidaung township in the restive Rakhine state, Jan. 25, 2019.

GENEVA — The U.N. refugee agency says it is worried by reports of people fleeing escalating violence in Myanmar's southern Chin State and Rakhine State, adding to growing instability in these regions.