" ယူနီကုတ်နှင့် ဖော်ဂျီ ဖောင့် နှစ်မျိုးစလုံးဖြင့် ဖတ်နိုင်အောင်( ၂၁-၀၂-၂၀၂၂ ) မှစ၍ဖတ်ရှုနိုင်ပါပြီ။ (  Microsoft Chrome ကို အသုံးပြုပါ ) "
Showing posts with label History. Show all posts
Showing posts with label History. Show all posts

Wednesday, June 26, 2024

၁၉၆၄ ၏ ဂန္ဓဝင်မြောက် ဖြစ်ရပ်များ

Famous Myanmar Muslim

လွတ်လပ်ရေးခရီးတထောက် ( ဗိုလ်ဗလ-ရဲဘော်သုံးကျိပ် ) ပထမတွဲ

ရမ္မာဝတီမြို့ဝန် ၁၇၆၂- ၁၈၂၂ ( ဆရာကြီးဦးနု )

ကျောင်းသုံးမြန်မာရာဇဝင် ( ဦးဘသန်း )

Monday, December 4, 2023

ULA/AA အကြောင်း

 


သမိုင်းအကျဉ်း

တည်ထောင်သည့်ခုနှစ် – ၂၀၀၉ ခုနှစ်၊ ဧပြီ ၁၀ ရက်။

ဌာနချုပ်                – ယာယီဌာနချုပ်အား KIO ဌာနချုပ်ရှိရာ လိုင်ဇာမြို့တွင် ဖွင့်လှစ်ထားသည်။

လှုပ်ရှားဒေသ           – ရခိုင်ပြည်နယ်အတွင်းရှိ ကျောက်တော်၊ မြောက်ဦး၊ စစ်တွေ၊ ပေါက်တော ၊ရသေ့တောင်၊ ပုဏ္ဏားကျွန်း၊ မင်းပြား၊ ဘူးသီးတောင်၊ မောင်တော ၊ကျောက်ဖြူ၊ အမ်းမြို့နယ်များနှင့် မြန်မာ- အိန္ဒိယ နယ်စပ်၊ မြန်မာ- ဘဂ်လားဒေ့ရှ်နယ်စပ်၊ ချင်းပြည်နယ်အတွင်းရှိ ပလက်ဝမြို့နယ်၊ ကချင်ပြည်နယ်နှင့် ရှမ်းပြည်နယ် မြောက်ပိုင်း။

MNDAA အကြောင်း

သမိုင်းအကျဉ်း

တည်ထောင်သည့်ရက်စွဲ – ၁၉၈၉ ခုနှစ် မတ် ၁၁ ရက်။

ဌာနချုပ်                 – ဟုန်အိုင်တောင်ကြော၊ ကုန်းကြမ်းမြို့နယ်။

လှုပ်ရှားဒေသ            – ချင်းရွှေဟော်၊ လောက်ကိုင်၊ ကုန်းကြမ်း၊ မော်ထိုက်၊ မုံးကိုး၊ ကွမ်းလုံ၊                                                ကွတ်ခိုင်နှင့် လားရှိုး စသည့် ဒေသများ။

ခန့်မှန်းအင်အား         – ၇,၀၀၀ နှင့်အထက်။


ခေါင်းဆောင်            – ဖုန်တာ့ရွှင်(ဥက္ကဋ္ဌ၊ ​စစ်ဦးစီးချုပ်)၊ ယန်ဝင်းရှန် (ဒုတိယ စစ်သေနာပတိချုပ်)၊    ဖုန်အားဒီ (ခ) ဦးထွန်းမြတ်လင်း(အတွင်းရေးမှူး)။

Friday, October 20, 2023

What Is Hezbollah?

COUNCIL ON FOREIGN RELATIONS
Written By : Kali Robinson
Last updated October 14, 2023 

Military experience gained from fighting in Syria’s civil war and decades of clashes with Israel has strengthened the Iran-backed group, but politically, its clout among Lebanon’s populace may be waning. 

Members of Lebanon’s Hezbollah take part in Ashura commemorations in a southern Beirut suburb. Anwar Amro/AFP/Getty Images

Summary
  • Hezbollah wields significant power in Lebanon, where it operates as both a Shiite Muslim political party and militant group.
  • It opposes Israel and Western powers operating in the Middle East, and it functions as a proxy of Iran, its largest benefactor.
  • The group has faced unprecedented scrutiny from the Lebanese public amid the country’s political and economic crisis.

Wednesday, October 11, 2023

History of Palestine

The Stone Age and the Copper Age

The Paleolithic Period (Old Stone Age) in Palestine was first fully examined by the British archaeologist Dorothy Garrod in her excavations of caves on the slopes of Mount Carmel in 1929–34. The finds showed that at that stage Palestine was culturally linked with Europe, and human remains were recovered showing that the inhabitants were of the same group as the Neanderthal inhabitants of Europe. The Mesolithic Period (Middle Stone Age) is best represented by a culture called Natufian, known from excavations at ʿAin Mallāha and Jericho. The Natufians lived in caves, as did their Paleolithic predecessors, but there is a possibility that they were experimenting in agriculture, for the importance to them of the collection of grain is shown by the artistic care that they lavished on the carving of the hafts of their sickles and in the provision of utensils for grinding. During the subsequent Neolithic Period (New Stone Age) humans gradually undertook the domestication of animals, the cultivation of crops, the production of pottery, and the building of towns (e.g., Jericho by 7000 bce).

Sunday, September 17, 2023

ROHINGYA CRISIS IN BANGLADESH: SEARCHING FOR A DESTINATION

ROHINGYA CRISIS IN BANGLADESH: SEARCHING FOR A DESTINATION



Group Members

Sifat Uddin-KJ-137
Habibur Rahman-FR-121
Shakhaoath Hossain-ZIA-124
Mazharul Islam-KJ-87
Sumaiya Nour-KM-48
Faiham Ebna Sharif-MM-84
Md. Mohidur Rahman Bhuiyan-MM-82
Mostafa Mohammad Sazzad Hossain-BB-76


Submitted to 

Mohammad Tanzimuddin Khan
Lecturer
Department of International Relations
University of Dhaka

Date of Submission: July 5, 2007. 

DEDICATED TO

ALL THE REFUGEES THROUGHOUT THE WORLD WHO ARE
REMAINING SCAPEGOATES OF VARIOUS INTEREST
GROUPS BUT STILL DREAMING
FOR A BETTER LIFE.


Thursday, August 31, 2023

Good reason to tread carefully on Rohingya crisis

Jarkata Post
Tan Hui Yee
15.12.2016

 
 In this May 12 file photo, ethnic Rohingya sit at a refugee camp north of Sittwe, western Rakhine state, Myanmar. The long-persecuted Rohingya, many of whose families arrived in Myanmar generations ago, are treated as illegal migrants from neighboring Bangladesh and virtually excluded from the political process. (AP/Gemunu Amarasinghe )

Malaysian Prime Minister Najib Razak broke with the spirit of Asean camaraderie by joining a recent march protesting against Myanmar's treatment of its beleaguered Rohingya, a Muslim minority group within the predominantly Buddhist country. "We want to tell Aung San Suu Kyi enough is enough!" he told the leader of the fellow Asean member, in reference to alleged atrocities some have condemned as "genocide".

Tuesday, August 29, 2023

နဝတ/နအဖအစိုးရခေတ်

ISP Peace Desk
(September 18, 1988)

သမိုင်းအတွေ့အကြုံ

၁၉၈၈ ဇွန်လအတွင်း နိုင်ငံတဝန်း ဆန္ဒပြမှုများပေါ်ပေါက် လာခဲ့ပြီး ဇူလိုင် ၂၃ ရက်၌ ပြုလုပ်ခဲ့သည့် ဗမာ့ဆိုရှယ် လစ်လမ်းစဉ်ပါတီ(BBSP)၏ အရေးပေါ်ပါတီညီလာခံ၌ ပါတီဥက္ကဋ္ဌဦးနေဝင်းနှင့် သမ္မတ   ဦးစန်းယုတို့သည် ရာ ထူးမှ အသီးသီး နုတ်ထွက်ခဲ့ကြသည်ယင်းနောက်သမ္မတ နှင့် ပါတီဥက္ကဋ္ဌနေရာ ဆက်ခံသူအဖြစ် ဦးစိန်လွင်ကို ခန့် အပ်ခဲ့သည်။

၁၉၈၈ ခုနှစ် သြဂုတ် ၈ ရက်တွင် ရန်ကုန်မြို့တော်ခန်း မ ရှေ့၌ လူထောင်ပေါင်းများစွာ ပါဝင်သည့် ဆန္ဒ ပြပွဲကြီး ဖြစ်ပေါ်ခဲ့ပြီး ဆန္ဒပြပွဲများသည် မြန်မာနိုင်ငံတဝန်း ဖြစ် ပွားခဲ့သည်။အဆိုပါဆန္ဒပြမှုများကိုတပ် မတော်က ပစ် ခတ်နှိမ်နင်းခဲ့ခြင်းကြောင့် ရာနှင့်ချီ သေဆုံးခဲ့သည်။

ယင်းနောက် သြဂုတ် ၁၃ ရက်၌ သမ္မတရာထူးမှ ဦးစိန် လွင် နုတ်ထွက်ကြောင်း မြန်မာ့အသံမှကြေညာ ခဲ့ပြီး ဒေါက်တာမောင်မောင်ကို သမ္မတသစ်အဖြစ် ခန့်အပ်ခဲ့ ကာ ရန်ကုန်မြို့တွင် ချထားသည့်တပ်များ ကိုလည်း ရုပ်သိမ်းခဲ့သည်။ သို့ရာတွင် ပြည်သူလူထု၏ ဆန္ဒ ပြမှုမှာ ရပ်တန့်မသွားခဲ့ဘဲ ဆက်တိုက် ဖြစ် ပေါ်နေခဲ့ပြီး အစိုးရအုပ်ချုပ်ရေးယန္တရားရပ်ဆိုင်းနေသည့် အတွက် အကြမ်းဖက်မှုများလည်း ပေါ် ပေါက်လာခဲ့သည်။

ဆိုရှယ်လစ်လမ်းစဉ်ပါတီအစိုးရခေတ်

ISP Peace Desk
(January 3, 1974)

သမိုင်းအတွေ့အကြုံ

တော်လှန်ရေးကောင်စီအစိုးရသည် ဗမာ့ဆိုရှယ်လစ်လမ်းစဉ်ပါတီက ဦးဆောင်ရေးဆွဲသည့် ဖွဲ့စည်း ပုံအခြေခံဥပဒေသစ်ကို ၁၉၇၄ ဇန်နဝါရီ ၃ ရက်၌ ပြည်လုံးကျွတ်လူထုဆန္ဒခံယူပွဲ ကျင်းပကာအတည် ပြုခဲ့သည်။

Monday, August 28, 2023

The Other Side of the Rohingya AsiaWeek – 14 July 1978



The Other Side of the Rohingya
AsiaWeek – 14 July 1978

 


Rangoon correspondent U Maung Maung reports on his recent (July 1978) secret visit to thetowns of Aykab (Sittwe), Buthidaung and Maungdaw:

Extracts: From the minarets of mosques in the townships I toured, I could hear the familiachant calling the devout to prayer. The sound seemed to support the government’scontention that there was no religious persecution in the area. I certainly saw no sign ofantipathy  among the non-Muslims towards Muslims.

Sunday, August 20, 2023

Niger


 

Niger or the Niger[13][14] (/niːˈʒɛər, ˈnaɪdʒər/ nee-ZHAIR, NY-jər,[15][16] French: [niʒɛʁ]),[a] officially the Republic of the Niger[13][14] (French: République du Niger; Hausa: Jamhuriyar Nijar), is a landlocked country in West Africa. It is a unitary state bordered by Libya to the northeast, Chad to the east, Nigeria to the south, Benin and Burkina Faso to the southwest, Mali to the west, and Algeria to the northwest. It covers a land area of almost 1,270,000 km2 (490,000 sq mi), making it the largest landlocked country in West Africa. Over 80% of its land area lies in the Sahara. Its predominantly Muslim population of about 25 million[17][18] live mostly in clusters in the south and west of the country. The capital Niamey is located in Niger's southwest corner. 

According to Multidimensional poverty index (MPI) report of 2023, Niger is one of the poorest countries in the world.[19] Some non-desert portions of the country undergo periodic drought and desertification. The economy is concentrated around subsistence agriculture, with some export agriculture in the less arid south, and export of raw materials, including uranium ore. It faces challenges to development due to its landlocked position, desert terrain, low literacy rate, jihadist insurgencies, and the world's highest fertility rates due to birth control not being used and the resulting rapid population growth.[20]

Its society reflects a diversity drawn from the independent histories of some ethnic groups and regions and their period living in a single state. Historically, Niger has been on the fringes of some states. Since independence, Nigeriens have lived under five constitutions and three periods of military rule. After the military coup in 2010, Niger became a multi-party state. A majority of the population lives in rural areas. 
 

Etymology


The name comes from the Niger River which flows through the west of the country. The origin of the river's name is uncertain. Alexandrian geographer Ptolemy wrote descriptions of the wadi Gir (in neighbouring modern Algeria) and the Ni-Gir ("Lower Gir") to the south, possibly referring to the Niger River.[21] The modern spelling Niger was first recorded by Berber scholar Leo Africanus in 1550,[22] possibly derived from the Tuareg phrase gher-n-gheren meaning "river of rivers".[23] There is broad consensus among linguists that it does not derive from the Latin niger ("black") as was first erroneously believed.[21] The standard pronunciation in English is /niːˈʒɛər/, while in some Anglophone media /ˈnaɪdʒər/ is also used.
 
 
History 
Main article: History of Niger
Prehistory 
 
Rock engraving showing herds of giraffe, ibex, and other animals in the southern Sahara near Tiguidit, Niger

Stone tools, some dating as far back as 280,000 BC, have been found in Adrar Bous, Bilma and Djado in the northern Agadez Region.[24] Some of these finds have been linked with the Aterian and Mousterian tool cultures of the Middle Paleolithic period, which flourished in northern Africa circa 90,000 BC–20,000 BC.[25][24] It is thought that these humans lived a hunter-gatherer lifestyle.[24] In prehistoric times the climate of the Sahara was wetter and more fertile during the African humid period, a phenomenon archaeologists refer to as the "Green Sahara" ,which provided "favourable" conditions for hunting and later agriculture and livestock herding.[26][27]

Sunday, August 13, 2023

The Exodus of Rohingya Community: From the Past to Present

Research Gate
Tarak Aziz
Texas Tech University

Tarak Aziz, Institute of Disaster Management and Vulnerability Studies,
University of Dhaka and Dhaka University Research Society (DURS)

Wednesday, August 2, 2023

Burma–Bengal Crossings: Intercolonial Connections in Pre-Independence India

Devleena Ghosh
University of Technology, SydneyCorrespondence
Devleena.Ghosh@uts.edu.au
Pages 156-172 | Published online: 21 Mar 2016


Abstract
The large-scale movement of people between Burma and Bengal in the early twentieth century has been explored recently by authors such as Sugata Bose and Sunil Amrith who locate Burma within the wider migratory culture of the Indian Ocean, the Bay of Bengal and Southeast Asia. This article argues that the long and historical connections between Bengalis and Burmese were transformed by the British colonisation of the region. Through an analysis of selected literary texts in Bengali, some by well-known and others by obscure writers, this article shows that, for Indians, Burma constituted an elsewhere where the fantastic and superhuman were within reach, and caste and religious constraints could be circumvented and radical possibilities enabled by masquerade and disguise.

Introduction


Burma is a spectre that haunts the story of the east coast of India. Its geographical placement as one of India’s closest neighbours, sharing a thousand kilometres of common borders, is in contradiction to the elusive shadow that it intermittently casts on the emotional cartography of eastern India and, for the purposes of this paper, particularly Bengal. This lacuna in the shared and layered histories of the Eastern Indian Ocean has as much to do with shared colonial pasts as with the tendency of modern nation-states to treat relatively recent borders as sacred and inviolable, thereby denying all of the flows, movements, connections, fluidities and uncertainties that are the very stuff of human history and the imbrication of social, cultural and emotional worlds.

Tuesday, July 11, 2023

Myanmar: A New Muslim Insurgency in Rakhine State

Crisis Group
15 December 2016 

Recent attacks by an émigré-led force of trained Rohingya fighters mark a dangerous turn. To remove a main root of the violence – Rohingya despair – the government must reverse longstanding discrimination against the Muslim minority, moderate its military tactics, and reach out to Myanmar’s Muslim allies. 


Executive Summary

The deadly attacks on Border Guard Police (BGP) bases in Myanmar’s northern Rakhine State on 9 October 2016 and the days following, and a serious escalation on 12 November when a senior army officer was killed, signify the emergence of a new Muslim insurgency there. The current violence is qualitatively different from anything in recent decades, seriously threatens the prospects of stability and development in the state and has serious implications for Myanmar as a whole. The government faces a huge challenge in calibrating and integrating its political, policy and security responses to ensure that violence does not escalate and intercommunal tensions are kept under control. It requires also taking due account of the grievances and fears of Rakhine Buddhists.

Failure to get this right would carry enormous risks. While the government has a clear duty to maintain security and take action against the attackers, it needs, if its response is to be effective, to make more judicious use of force and focus on a political and policy approach that addresses the sense of hopelessness and despair underlying the anger of many Muslims in Rakhine State. Complicating this is that Aung San Suu Kyi has some influence, but under the constitution no direct control over the military.

The insurgent group, which refers to itself as Harakah al-Yaqin (Faith Movement, HaY), is led by a committee of Rohingya émigrés in Saudi Arabia and is commanded on the ground by Rohingya with international training and experience in modern guerrilla war tactics. It benefits from the legitimacy provided by local and international fatwas (religious judicial opinions) in support of its cause and enjoys considerable sympathy and backing from Muslims in northern Rakhine State, including several hundred locally trained recruits.

Monday, July 10, 2023

Traditional Homeland of Rohingya in Myanmar

The area between west bank of Kaladan River and east bank of Naf River, which demarcates Myanmar-Bangladesh border, in North Arakan is known as “Traditional Homeland of Rohingya”. It has been deeply implanted the minds of the Rohingya people despite changes in demography, due to pogrom in 1942 and continued systematic persecution against them particularly from 1962 military rule in Burma. Renowned historians such as, Burma Historical Commission’s compiler Prof. Dr. G.H. Luce and History Prof. Dr. Than Tun haveaffirmed this traditional homeland of Rohingya stating that in North Arakan there was“possibility of Rohingya and their kings in the Mayu valley since 800 years back”.[1]

Thursday, June 8, 2023

A Bleak Future Awaits, But There’s Still Hope!

BORDER CRIMINOLOGIES
UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD
Author(s) Arafat Reza,
Manzoor Hasan OBE
Posted :7 June 2023


Guest post by Manzoor Hasan OBE and Arafat Reza. Manzoor Hasan OBE is currently serving as the Executive Director of the Centre for Peace and Justice, BRAC University. He can be reached at manzoor.h@bracu.ac.bd. Arafat Reza is working as a Research Associate at the Centre for Peace and Justice, BRAC University. He can be reached at arafat.reza@bracu.ac.bd.

Credit: CPJ Volunteer.


We want to take you back to 2017. Ayesha Begum was twenty years old and the mother of a one-year-old boy at the time. She was having dinner with her sisters-in-law when Myanmar army forces stormed into their home and pushed the women into a room. For the next few hours, Ayesha and her sisters were raped in turns by twelve soldiers. Later when the opportunity arose, they walked for eight days and fled to neighbouring Bangladesh. Two of Ayesha’s sisters-in-law did not survive the tempestuous journey.